What is the service life of Grain Storage Covers and how many times it can be reused?

It is 3 years with possible extension if careful handling.

How the utility aspect change from Cold Climatic conditions of, say Minnesota to Indian temperate conditions?

One shall have to keep in mind the effect of sharp deviation in temperatures of Northern States of the country viz. Panjab, Haryana and U.P. Wheat Bowl of the Nation—where the night temperatures can go down to 3-4 Degrees Celsius to 35-37 Degrees Celsius or even more during the day. We have our storages in Louisiana and in Montana, temperatures are not affecting the commodity due to air absence

What shall be the ratio of land requirement vs capacity of the grain to be stored?

Does one assume 50000 MT equivalents to 3 Acres? Yes, but it all depends on requirements, if we need walls, what is the loading option etc…

What shall be the maximum height of storage in the center and on the sides of the Covers after installation?

It depends on plot size. Example 150x 100 feet plot for wheat has 7 m height.

If the stocks in one plot are more than, say 100.000 MT of Rice, shall there be any chances of breaking in the grain?

It depends on site dimension, but Canamer can always make it right. It is essentially important to understand that we make tailor made products not standard product.

How long can grain be stored in one go without any storage loss/damage?

It can be stored for 3years.

Does the stock need fumigation on a regular basis or not, during the storage?

No it doesn’t.

How about the aeration needs?

It depends of grain that is stored -there is no need for wheat, for maze we need it and we have patented aeration system.

What have been the trends of storage losses in Mexico/USA storage period wise, in silos and under these covers?

It is less than 1%

In Indian conditions, where the wheat stocks are procured and stored in warehouses, say in April-May followed with monsoons in July-August; gain in weight is the order of the day due to moisture absorption?

Has similar trend has been experienced in USA post rains. Envelope system keeps wheat in vacuum based storage. Changes in humidity are minor and not damaging the commodity.

What is a Power Out™ Retention System?

While many agricultural users believe that fans are to be used for holding the cover on the piles many have paid the price of losing their cover when a storm has eliminated their electrical power and the fans. A Power Out™ Retention System resolves this because it will hold a cover on the pile without fans. In addition when stockpiling or picking up the commodity a fan vacuum fan system in ineffective when the end of the pile is completely open.

Do I need pipes on the top of my grain pile if I have perforated side walls?

Most agricultural aeration engineers will agree the perforated side wall at best will only replace about 1/3 of the intake area necessary to achieve a good aeration design. Wall intake only provides inflow of air to the area running from the top of the wall to the longest exhaust bottom pipe thus walls provide no cross air movement to the entire top of the pile. That is not the case for a round pile assuming the entire center core of the pile is and exhaust plenum and the walls are of sufficient height to provide enough intake opening so as to match the required CFM exhaust area to balance each other thus note increasing the static load on the exhaust fans thus reducing their required performance base on the grain and moisture level.

How many fans do I need to hold the cover on?

Once the base is sealed and a vacuum is created the only purpose of any fan is to offset intake air from refilling the cavity with the commodity. A fan or fans used without intake is not aeration.

How many fans do I need to aerate my grain pile?

There are four factors necessary to determine the number of fans:

  • The moisture content of the grain. (This provides the amount of air needed for safe storage and is usually stated in terms of 1/10 cfm/bushel to 2/3 cfm/bushel
  • The static load of the grain at the highest point or most often the center.
  • The CFM (cubic feet of air per minute) an aeration fan will deliver base on the adjustment for the static load.
  • The number of bushels of the commodity to be contained in the storage unit. Only with these three pieces of information can the number and horse power of the fans be determined.

What is the envelope?

An envelope™ is a grain storage unit which encapsulates and seals a commodity protecting it from moisture, air and wind.

What is a Centerfill?

A Centerfill, also known as Stadium Storage is a round commodity pile with or without a wall taking the shape of a cone using its natural angle of repose and which the mass of the stockpile provides a truss system to support a cover. The stockpile is built from the center and flows outward. The stack height in the center determines along with the angle the diameter of the pile. The center peak is most often attached to a lifting ring which is raised as the material is discharged under the cover. The cover is most often installed prior to the start of stockpiling on the ground. The bottom circumference is sealed at the base by securing to a wall, using an anchor trench or with a base seal of ballast material.

What is a lifting ring?

A ring at middle of a Centerfill used to elevate the cover during the stockpiling stage and is secured to the cover using a series of compression plates, compression ring, lift hooks or simply anchor points. Upon filling the lifting ring most often rests on the commodity covered or at the natural stacking angle of the commodity.

How do I secure the bottom of the tarp?

The bottom is sealed at the base by securing to a wall, using an anchor trench or with a base seal of ballast material. Sealing of the bottom is important in the use of a down draft or negative aeration system since makeup air will always take the path of least resistance.

What is more important in buying a cover mils or tensile strength?

Would more mils have a higher tensile strength? – In Centerfill type storage or stockpiles over 150’ wide we believe tensile strength is always more important because the loads concentrated at the peaks and the length of the slopes when exposed to wind and loads are critical and dependent on strength. Internal and external companion retention systems can assist in coping with these added loads. On membranes and envelope™ systems sealing strengths and gas and moisture transmission rates are more important especially when they can be supplemented with internal retention systems such as the Gridlock® Patented System.

How should the base or pad be constructed for my grain pile?

First and foremost the base should be crowned and the sub base tight enough to support the mass weight of the center load of the commodity and the weight of all trucks and equipment running on it. It should contain a geotextile and geomembrane in the sub base to stop moisture and assist in carrying the load. Consideration should be given to reclaiming the commodity as the use of throw away ground tarps can be troublesome to separate with augers, loaders and other equipment.

Is a ground sheet necessary?

Only if the base is not constructed properly with a tight limestone, asphalt or cement base is not used to prevent ground moisture penetrating the base.

What are the five most important items necessary for sizing my aeration?

Moisture of the Grain Stored

Static Load (Depth of grain)

Aeration Fan CFM with load

Balancing intake with exhaust area

Length of time grain is to be stored

How high can I build my grain pile?

The height of a stockpile is based on two primary considerations. The first being the stack angle of the commodity and the distance from the drop point of the auger or head pulley throw of a conveyor to the front of the wheels of the stacking equipment. The second is the static load of the stacked commodity and what increase aeration demands evolve when stacked higher. In most cases small grains like wheat should be built in piles 110 – 120 feet wide the larger grains like corn 120 – 160 feet wide. Round stockpiles heights are based solely on the height of the center tower and the bottom area or flow out area they will occur base on the angle of repose and wall heights is walls are used.

Should I have temperature probes in my grain pile?

Temperature probes unless you are superman with the ability to see what is going on under the cover are a smart investment. Charting your pile from day one is the best way to know what is going on under that cover. If you have any question as to how long you will be on the ground temperature probes are a wise investment.

What should I do if it rains while I am stacking the grain?

Stop Stacking.  The last thing you should do is to put dry grain on top of a layer of wet grain.

Two options can help. The first option is to reverse or turn and run your aeration fan to blow in during the stacking process. This will keep the FM from plugging the bottom pipes as a side benefit and allow moisture to wick from the top if you delay the stacking process until it has time to dry out the upper moisture layer.

Better yet compute the bushels per hour you can stack and wait until you have that window in the weather and then stack without stopping until it is build, top pipe is placed and covered. If it is a oval or rectangular pile cover it in stages, protecting your investment as it is built and should it rain put the cover over the leading face to protect it even though you know it will need to be removed to continue. Removing the wet grain at the bottom with a loader will cause the pile to collapse and a lot of the wet grain will slide down the slope because of the natural angle of repose.

How do I eliminate or minimize grain loss on the floor of the pile?

Drainage Drainage Drainage! A stockpile sitting on porous ground and with a high water table can cause the water to be pulled through the ground and spoil the bottom grain. Depending on the porosity of the ground up to 16 feet. In addition rain, snow and other precipitation collecting or running to the perimeter of the stockpile saturates the ground surrounding the stockpile and forces it to be drawn back into the stockpile as the fans search for makeup air.

What is the lifespan of Canamer Grain Storage System (CGSS)?

3 years with possible extension if handled according to instructions.

How many times covering material can be reused

Handling CGSS with Canamer Maintenance Team (CMT) it is possible to reuse it. If there is contract of maintenance with customer, CMT takes responsibility to extend the lifetime for contract duration.

How do you place the cover over the grains? (Grains are stacked at say 20-30m high, so how is the cover placed over the top of the pile)

It is prefab cover tailor made and packed that can be placed over the pile. With 40 years of experience Canamer Installation Team (CIT) does it with very large quantities in US.

Moisture is the most important factor for storage - How is the moisture level maintained inside Canamer Storage?

Once CGSS is sealed, moisture variations are minimal since no air in the storage. Moisture measuring devices can be placed every 30 feet on the cover as additional security.

Are the grains of any temperature and how are they affected by outside temperature when they are inside the storage for the duration? Does the external temperature affect grains in any way (longevity, quality, etc.)?

Since air is sucked out from Canamer Envelope system (use for storage of wheat, barley, rice), temperature changes can not cause grain damage.

Do the grains expand or contract during storage because of external weather? How does this affect the grains or grain life etc?

Practice shows that grain damage during 3 years storage in Canamer envelope system is below 1%.

Is our fabric recyclable? What do we do with the fabric once used?

CMT manages if to reuse it after corrections in our local production plant, or partly replace it with new material. It is very heavy duty material, but needs to be cleaned and recovered before reuse.

What is the maximum stack height for the bunker storage?

Depends on site dimensions, required quantity and there is always option to install walls if needed due to smaller plot sizes. Technically it also depends on loading equipment size and availability.

What is the strength of the material? What kind of pressure and air speed can it stand? How have you tested the strength of the fabric?

On declared specification of the product that is delivered to each customer.

What would be the specification for

a) Pipe plastic perforated pipes usually used for water /sewage system,
b) Suction fan normal fan that can operate both direction, power depends on pipe size, i.e. size of the storage,
c)Walls – can be concrete, metal, wood, increases capacity f storage if limited size of the plot

How humidity, heavy rains, snow, extreme sun exposure and heat affect:

a) fabric, b) grains inside the fabric envelope system is eliminating air and humidity cannot damage the commodity. Fabric is water proof and heavy duty. Changes in humidity are minor and not damaging the commodity. We are setting up envelopes in Minnesota and Montana on the north of US and also in Louisiana and Texas on the south.

How often do you fumigate?

Can be done on loading, no need during the storage, since no air, no living organism will damage stored commodity.

How grains survive if all the oxygen has been sucked out and it is an air tight storage?

It is no total air removal, Canamer envelope system sustains grain is in perfect condition even 3 years after loading.

Grains produce heat and respiration inside a silo, therefore aeration is required to control moisture levels. So how is this done?

Maze and sunflower seed requires aeration, Canamer aeration system (CAS) installation is patented and used for commodities that needs it. For wheat, barley and rice we use envelope system with no aeration due to customer cost optimization. Only in 2014 CGSS stored over 2mio MT throughout North America

What shall be the ratio of land requirement to capacity of the grain to be stored? Does one assume 50000 MT equivalent to 3 Acres?

Yes, but it all depends on requirements, if walls are required, what is the loading option etc. CGSS is tailor made product and direct contact is necessary with each customer.

What shall be the maximum height of storage in the centre and on the sides of the Covers after installation?

Depends on plot size. Example 150 x 100 feet plot for wheat has 7 m height.

In Indian conditions, where the wheat stocks are procured and stored in warehouses, say in April-May followed with monsoons in July-August; gain in weight is the order of the day due to moisture absorption? Has similar trend has been experienced in USA/Europe post rains.

Stabilized grain (means with moisture 12-14 %) should be stored in Canamer storage. It will not be the problem to level moisture content when the sales time comes by reverting the air to the storage.

If the stocks in one lot are more than, say 100.000 MT of Rice, shall there be any chances of breaking in the grain?

Never experienced it, even in storages of 250.000mt. However it is important to understand that CGSS makes tailor made products in direct contact with each customer!

How long Rice/Wheat can be stored in one go without any storage loss/damage?

Without opening more than 3 years if maintained by CMT.

What have been the trends of storage losses in Mexico/USA storage period wise, in silos and under these covers?

CGSS has below 1% loss of commodity stored and maintained by CMT.